Buying an electric car lets you skip the increasing petrol and diesel prices. EVs are more economical to maintain and emit zero toxic gases into the atmosphere. However, many people worry about the difficulty of charging an electric car, which makes them hesitant to buy one.
With advancements in EV technology, you can easily charge an electric car at home whenever required. An EV home charger can fully charge your vehicle overnight while you get a goodnight's sleep. Or, you can use a fast charger to recharge your EV within an hour or two.
In this article, we will discuss all you need to know about charging an EV at home.
EV charging at home offers higher convenience and efficiency than public charging stations. The hardwired and portable plug-in and plug-out chargers let you monitor your charging history and schedule specific charging times every day.
Get a dedicated electric car home charging station installed by a professional.
For a hardwired charger, you must choose a charging point that offers easy access to the EV.
Utilise your charger's fast-charging capacity and built-in features to ease the charging process.
Plugin the charger overnight to get a fully charged EV in the morning.
Top up your EV’s battery with a quick charge if required during the day.
The time necessary to charge an EV at home ranges between 30 minutes and 12 hours. Majorly, the charging duration comes down to the speed of your charging point and the battery size of your vehicle.
A typical battery of 60 kWh in an EV takes about 8 hours for a 0 to 100 per cent charge using a charging point of 7 kW.
Using a 50 kW fast charger, you can top up the EV range by 160 km in about 35 minutes of charging.
However, slow charging points and big car batteries tend to increase the charging period.
Let’s talk about the main factors that affect the charging speed of your electric car.
Battery size: The size or capacity of a car battery is measured in kWh. Bigger EV batteries take a longer time to charge than smaller EV batteries.
Battery charge: An empty battery will take longer to charge up than to top up the same from 50 per cent.
Vehicle’s maximum charging rate: The charging speed of a vehicle is limited to its maximum charging rate. For instance, an EV with a maximum charging rate of 7 kW won’t charge any quicker when plugged into a charging point of 22 kW.
Charger’s maximum charging rate: The charging duration also depends on the charger’s maximum charging rate. For instance, a charger of 7 kW capacity can’t offer more than a 7 kW charging rate to an 11 kW electric vehicle battery.
Environmental conditions: The climate conditions also tend to impact the EV charging speed. Charging an EV takes more time during cold weather conditions, especially while using a rapid charger. It happens due to the reduced efficiency of vehicle batteries to contain the charge due to cold temperature.
EV charging at home is like charging any other electronic device such as your mobile phone or laptop. So, you can plug the car into a charger whenever needed.
Most people avoid letting their EV discharge to 0 per cent by topping up on time. You can plug the charger into your EV overnight to get a fully charged battery in the morning. Keeping the battery charged allows you the flexibility of having your car ready for any unexpected journeys.
Here are the factors that decide how frequently you must charge your EV battery.
The battery capacity of your car decides how often you need to plug in the charger. The batteries with lower capacity discharge faster than high capacity EV batteries.
The charging frequency depends a lot on how often you use your vehicle every day. The more you drive, the more frequently you will have to charge the battery pack for your subsequent journeys.
Overnight charging ensures a fully charged EV in the morning, so you won’t have to stop at public charging stations for top-ups.
EV batteries lose their charge faster during cold weather. Thus, you may have to charge them more frequently when driving in cold climate conditions.
For accuracy and safety purposes, you must approach a professional to install an electric car home charging station.
Once you get an electrician, follow the below-mentioned steps to install your EV charging station.
Step 1: Buy an EV home charger based on your vehicle's battery capacity.
Step 2: Evaluate and confirm that the installation area aligns with the standard technical safety criteria.
Step 3: Make sure that the electric service at your home can take the load of the EV charger. If not, contact the local electricity department to increase the supply limit.
Step 4: Ask the electrician to create space for a circuit breaker on the electric panel.
Step 5: Get the charger installed and tested for safe wiring before you begin charging electric vehicle at home.
The cost of charging an electric car at home comes down to two factors.
The battery capacity of your electric car.
The cost per unit of energy you receive from your electric service provider.
Depending on the state where you live in India, the electricity cost per kWh (Kilowatt-hour) approximately ranges between Rs. 8 and Rs. 10. On the other hand, the battery capacity of EVs in India ranges between 20 kWh and 45 kWh.
So, you can check the battery capacity, charging duration, and the cost of electricity at your home. It will help you calculate the cost of charging your EV at home accordingly.
Below are the things you can do to manage the cost of EV charging at home.
When buying an electric vehicle charger, you must ensure that its maximum charging rate isn’t less than the maximum charging rate of your vehicle. Also, it would be a waste of energy to buy a charger with a higher maximum charging rate than what your EV requires. Thus, you should choose a compatible charger for your electric car.
If your electric car has fast charging compatibility, you should consider buying a fast charger. While a regular charger takes about 8 to 12 hours to fully charge an EV battery, fast chargers require only 2 to 5 hours, depending on the charging capacity.
EV charging technology is gradually advancing in India. You can find different types of charging options for your electric car. In fact, there are studies taking place in the direction of solar charging for electric vehicles. So, you might be able to get a device for charging an EV at home with solar energy in future.
Currently, there are three main types of chargers for EV charging at home. They differ in the extent of power output they can offer, impacting the charging speed. Let’s talk about them in detail.
The three types of EV home charging stations include the following.
This charger is the fastest electric car home charging station you can have. A rapid charger uses high power AC (Alternating Current) or DC (Direct Current) to charge up an EV battery as quickly as possible.
Depending on your EV’s brand and model, a rapid charger can charge it from 0 to 80 per cent in 20 minutes.
Some modern EVs might take about an hour to attain an 80 per cent charge using a rapid charger.
The charging begins rapidly, but the EV reduces the charging speed after achieving 80 per cent of charge. It helps to protect the battery from internal damages and improves charging efficiency.
It is important to remember that you can use a rapid charger only for EVs that come with rapid-charging compatibility.
You will have to get a hardwired unit, as rapid chargers currently don’t come in portable units.
Fast chargers operate on AC and are widely used for charging electric vehicle at home. The charger’s capacity and the vehicle model define the charging speed you can achieve with these chargers.
Fast chargers usually offer a 22 kW or 7 kW charging rate.
A 7 kW fast charger can recharge a 40 kW EV battery from 0 to 100 per cent in 4 to 6 hours.
A 22 kW fast charger can charge up a 40 kW EV battery from 0 to 100 per cent in just 1 to 2 hours.
It is essential to ensure the compatibility of your EV’s battery with a 22 kW or 7 kW charging station.
Though fast EV chargers are popular in public locations, you can get one installed at home for personal use.
There are both portable and hardwired fast chargers available in the market.
A regular charger is the most common EV home charging station you can set up. These chargers offer a slower charging speed than rapid or fast chargers. So, if you want to use this charger, overnight charging would be the right approach.
Regular EV chargers can deliver a charging rate between 3 kW and 6 kW.
They take around 8 to 12 hours to charge an electric vehicle from 0 to 100 per cent.
You can choose between a portable or hardwired regular EV charger.
You will enjoy the following benefits of charging an EV at home rather than at public stations.
With a home EV charger, you can control when you want to charge your vehicle. You don’t need to go all the way to a public charging station and wait in line to charge your EV. A home charging station enables you to just plug in the charger and focus on other tasks at hand.
With a fully charged EV available, you will be ready to drive your car whenever needed. You can even plan your day trips without worrying about not having enough charge in your electric car.
Having a fast charger at home is much more efficient than a public charging station. A home EV charger usually takes 20 to 45 minutes for a quick top-up or about 4 to 7 hours to fully charge an EV based on the charging rate. This saves you a lot of time usually spent on driving to a public station, waiting for your turn and charging the EV.
Like any other electric battery, the battery of an EV loses its efficiency over time. However, battery degradation slows down if you keep it fully charged rather than getting quick top-ups at public charging stations. Hence, you can maintain a longer EV battery life with a home charging station.
You get to buy a home charger compatible with your electric vehicle in terms of maximum charging capacity. It is easier than searching for public charging stations specific to your EV’s brand and battery capacity.
Here are more questions answered about charging electric cars at home.
If you have a regular EV charger, then you can plug it into your electric car overnight. A regular EV charging station of 3 kW takes about 8 to 12 hours to charge an electric car from 0 to 100 per cent. Thus, you will be safe charging your car overnight with this type of charger.
However, you should decide the duration of charging sessions based on the charger’s capacity, EV’s battery capacity, and the available charge in your electric car.Do EV manufacturers offer home charger installation services?
Yes, many EV manufacturers in India offer home charger installation services. For instance, the Tata Nexon EV is an electric SUV that comes with a free home charger and installation service.Is it cheaper to charge an EV at home or a public charging station?
That depends on the per-unit cost of electricity you are getting at home. This cost is different for different states and even cities in India. However, you should consider comparing other factors like convenience, availability and charging compatibility along with the cost of EV home charging.
At the same time, find out the cost of EV charging at your nearest public charging station. It will help you decide which option would be better suited for your needs.
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